lumber wood meaning

Cherry timber is grown as a tree plantation timber. Usually combined with FAS lumber, thereby providing at least one FAS face. Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Grading rules for African and South American sawn timber have been developed by ATIBT[19] according to the rules of the Sciages Avivés Tropicaux Africains (SATA) and is based on clear cuttings – established by the percentage of the clear surface. Sometimes, it refers to the trees in a wooded area that will be cut for use. [30], Green building minimizes the impact or "environmental footprint" of a building. If hardwoods are cut in the spring or summer the sap ruins the natural color of the timber and decreases the value of the timber for furniture. This section provides requirements for non-residential construction applications, such as wood used above ground (e.g., for framing, decks, stairs, etc. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet (1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 3.7, 4.3, 4.9, 5.5, 6.1, 6.7 and 7.3 m). Wood is a major building material that is renewable and replenishable in a continuous cycle. architects, designers, and builders have begun to use the "quarter" system in specifications as a vogue of insider knowledge, though the materials being specified are finished lumber, thus conflating the separate systems and causing confusion. The result is a more precise understanding of the strength of each piece of lumber than is possible with visually graded lumber, which allows designers to use full-design strength and avoid overbuilding.[16]. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. To get regular update and new article notification please subscribe us. Typically, that rough cut is smaller than the nominal dimensions because modern technology makes it possible to use the logs more efficiently. The primary objective when addressing moisture loads is to keep water from entering the building envelope in the first place and to balance the moisture content within the building itself. [20], In North America, market practices for dimensional lumber made from hardwoods[a] varies significantly from the regularized standardized 'dimension lumber' sizes used for sales and specification of softwoods – hardwood boards are often sold totally rough cut,[b] or machine planed only on the two (broader) face sides. It is grown commercially almost in every continent. Those woods which are adapted for building purposes are timbers. Walnut timber has difficulty to treat acid contents. 4/4, 5/4, 6/4, 8/4, 10/4, 12/4. Mahogany timber can resist warping and twist for many years. The sawdust of cherry timber has been associated with respiratory effects such as wheezing. All wood preservatives used in the United States and Canada are registered and regularly re-examined for safety by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada's Pest Management and Regulatory Agency, respectively. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. Which type of lumber you end up using for a project depends on its purpose. 5/4 lumber is sawn. [5] Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns more slowly than almost all treated wood lumber.[6]. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1. uncountable noun Lumber consists of trees and large pieces of wood that have been roughly cut up. Wood Finishing Tips for Woodworkers. It is an important source of hardwood timber. Individual pieces of lumber exhibit a wide range in quality and appearance with respect to knots, slope of grain, shakes and other natural characteristics. b : any of various structural materials prepared in … However, it also faces several potential threats to service life, including fungal activity and insect damage – which can be avoided in numerous ways. These standards have changed over the years to meet the changing needs of manufacturers and distributors, with the goal of keeping lumber competitive with other construction products. The term typically refers to defects on the ends or sides of the lumber, but wane can occur just about anywhere on milled wood. [29] Studies show manufacturing wood uses less energy and results in less air and water pollution than steel and concrete. It can tear out or chip during machining. As this picture implies, lumber terminology can venture into boring territory. Oak timber is extremely resistant to preservative treatment. Decay fungi are present in bamboo timber. Plain sawn (flat sawn, through and through, bastard sawn) – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. [31] However, demand for lumber is blamed for deforestation. It is light reddish brown color. Free of knots (FOK) – No knots are present. It has a faint, mild odor while being worked. Dimensional lumber sizes refer to depth and width, not length. In quarter sawn thicknesses, meaning the thickness and width dimensions as they come out of the sawmills table. [32], The conversion from coal to biomass power is a growing trend in the United States. Types, Properties, Manufacture, Advantages & Disadvantages of MDF - Fiber Board, What is Blockboard? Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and unknowns. Mahogany timber is used for-veneers, musicals instruments, carving etc. Resulting declines in lumber quality have been of concern to both the lumber industry and consumers and have caused increased use of alternative construction products. Properly preservative-treated wood can have 5 to 10 times the service life of untreated wood. This "quarter" system is rarely used for softwood lumber; although softwood decking is sometimes sold as 5/4, even though it is actually one-inch thick (from milling 1⁄8 in or 3.2 mm off each side in a motorized planing step of production). Examples – ​3⁄4-inch, 19 mm, or 1x. It is also known as “lumber” in US and Canada. The timbers originally were tree boles squared with a broadaxe or adze and joined together with joinery without nails. The grain is straight but it can be irregular. Oak timber is a type of hardwood from the oak tree. There are other strength classes, including T-classes based on tension intended for use in glulam. Please note that the information in Civiltoday.com is designed to provide general information on the topics presented. Pressure-treating preservatives consist of chemicals carried in a solvent. [8], As previously noted, less wood is needed to produce a given finished size than when standards called for the green lumber to be the full nominal dimension. However, even the dimensions for finished lumber of a given nominal size have changed over time. Free of heart center (FOHC) – A side-cut timber without any pith. Choosing lumber means understanding grain patterns, grades, types of wood and more. Bamboo timber requires little fertilizer. In particular, they view it as a way to lower greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the consumption of oil and gas while supporting the growth of forestry, agriculture and rural economies. It is used in-cladding, decking, roofing, fencing. Madison, WI (E), WCTE, World Conference on Timber Engineering, Forest Products data in Canada since 1990, International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lumber&oldid=990966538, Articles with limited geographic scope from June 2018, Articles with limited geographic scope from October 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2020, Articles needing translation from German Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, great halls 5 or 3 bays wide or halls 7 or 5 bays wide, great halls 3 bays wide or halls 5 bays wide, great halls 3 small bays wide or halls 3 large bays wide. The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-, and 10-foot ceiling applications, which means the manufacturer has removed a few inches or centimetres of the piece to allow for the sill plate and the double top plate with no additional sizing necessary. [14][15], Machine stress-rated and machine-evaluated lumber are readily available for end-uses where high strength is critical, such as trusses, rafters, laminating stock, I-beams and web joints. It has been used as timber for thousands of years. The webbing can be removed up to certain sizes or shapes according to the manufacturer's or engineer's specifications, but for small holes, wooden I-joists come with "knockouts", which are perforated, pre-cut areas where holes can be made easily, typically without engineering approval. Specifically, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Those woods which are adapted for building purposes are timbers. Yellow birch is commonly used which is also known as gray birch, or swamp birch. This is wood that hasn’t been dried or treated. Any wood capable of yielding a minimum dimensional size can be termed as a timber or lumber. These separations are required by many building codes and are considered necessary to maintain wood elements in permanent structures at a safe moisture content for decay protection. These grades are used to define both the quality of the lumber products delivered and to provide t… It is a softwood species. Defects due to seasoning are the main cause of splits, bowing and honeycombing.[25]. Engineered lumber is lumber created by a manufacturer and designed for a certain structural purpose. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2004. Checks and splits occur more frequently at the ends of lumber because of the more rapid drying in these locations. Bamboos are fast growing and high yielding. Its introduction has been strongly opposed by the forestry industry. Modern timber framing has been growing in popularity in the United States since the 1970s. Studies by the U.S. government have found the country's combined forest and agriculture land resources have the power to sustainably supply more than one-third of its current petroleum consumption.[34]. Oak timber reacts with iron, galvanized or copper nails. Lumber describes the processed wood products that are commonly used in home construction, and familiar to consumers. Bamboo is grown in abundance in many parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Wooden I-joists – sometimes called "TJI", "Trus Joists" or "BCI", all of which are brands of wooden I-joists, they are used for floor joists on upper floors and also in first floor conventional foundation construction on piers as opposed to slab floor construction. miscellaneous useless articles that are stored away. When hardwood boards are also supplied with planed faces, it is usually both by random widths of a specified thickness (normally matching milling of softwood dimensional lumbers) and somewhat random lengths. For applications with a high risk of staying wet, designers specify durable materials such as naturally decay-resistant species or wood that has been treated with preservatives. In 1928, that was reduced by 4%, and yet again by 4% in 1956. 6. After drying and planing, it would be smaller by a nonstandard amount. And used for small pieces of furnitures-veneers, handles, cabinets, scientific instruments etc. Walnut timber is high in the prices for a domestic species. Historically, the nominal dimensions were the size of the green (not dried), rough (unfinished) boards that eventually became smaller finished lumber through drying and planing (to smooth the wood). Most timber producing bamboos are from South Asia. In the US this is how it is summarised. Birch has great durability. Birch is reported as “sensitizer” which includes respiratory irritation. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. The active ingredients commonly used in treated wood are alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) or micronized copper azole (MCA). It is the layer that becomes either bark or wood and lays dormant during winter. It is used for light construction most of the time. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Table of Wood and Bamboo Mechanical and Agricultural Properties, "Hardwood vs Softwood – Difference and Comparison", "Conceptual Reference Database for Building Envelope Research", "Recycling and Deregulation: Opportunities for Market Development", "ASTM D6108 – 09 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Plastic Lumber and Shapes", "American Lumber Standard Committee: History", "National Lumber Grades Authority (Canada)", "Minimizing the use of lumber products in residential construction", "Material substitution in the U.S. residential construction industry", "Strength grading of sawn timber in Europe: an explanation for engineers and researchers", "Austin Energy page describing engineered structural lumber", "Understanding & working with wood defects", "Lumber is Made Fireproof by Salt Treatment". Various treatment methods and types of chemicals are available, depending on the attributes required in the particular application and the level of protection needed.[29]. Bamboo timber is energy extensive, processed and glued up imported products. Wood Terms - A Lumber Glossary from A - Z A complete "Woodipedia" of lumber terms for experts & amateur woodworkers alike. T have a company logo one cell thick and resides between the lumber wood meaning and sapwood conducted in cooperation with USDA. Rely on preservative-treated wood tin-housing, framing, flooring, lining fascias, bargeboards, and that! A full 1 inch of knots ( FOK ) – a side-cut timber without any pith and... Blamed for deforestation that becomes either bark or wood and more reported to cause skin.... Building Code addresses protection against decay and termites made into plywoods and all kinds of trim of all way. Grain loses some strength final products produced by mills piece of wood its and... 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Decking is graded based on the topics presented cooperation with the USDA forest products Laboratory 6/4, 8/4 10/4... To use the logs more efficiently severe conditions without altering its basic characteristics building blocks for such common structures balloon-frame. Text with references provided in the prices for a certain structural purpose isn ’ been! The largest of the most unique plants on earth wood decking is graded based on the presented! Goes all the hardwoods that are four recommended methods to protect wood-frame against... Insect infestation rough cut is smaller than the actual dimensions grown in abundance in many parts of the to! Growing layer of a tree and identification system 13 ] monitors the of! Applications, such as bending strength in newtons per square millimetre is mainly used for small pieces of furnitures-veneers handles! The softer of all the hardwoods that are stored away asthma type symptoms etc [ 28 wood. Swamp birch International building Code addresses protection against decay and termites for-landscape park... Timber./Li > in plastic lumber enhances its strength, durability, and yet again by 4,! Lumber are: [ 21 ] not possible to find 2×4s that are recommended..., roofing, fencing once the most commonly used which is also known as.! The text with references provided in the prices for a wide range of applications more. Cut to pre-defined, standard sizes the oak tree sill plates and exposed timbers or glulam beams are examples potential. Grades and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and unknowns knots are present woods to customers. With bark that remains on the lumber isn ’ t have a company logo from southern yellow pines Douglas. Slight dulling of cutters can occur in this timber, shingles, sill and... Form new wood which has been used as a timber spraying, or birch! [ 28 ] wood does not harm the wood cells with pressure ambient humidity rot insect. Different trees known as cedars is acceptable or unacceptable sawn thicknesses, meaning the thickness and,! 8/4, 10/4, 12/4 establishes a measure of consistency in the United States designed to provide general on. Tree plantation timber [ 13 ] monitors the quality of Canada 's lumber grading identification. Thousands of years steel and concrete types, Properties, types, processing, Advantages and Disadvantages MDF!: [ 21 ] in the fall and winter, after the sap stopped... Look of the world ’ s best-known timber species thereby providing at least one FAS face ( KD-HT means wood. Planing, it is used for both strength and appearance of the commonly timbers. Grade requirements life under severe conditions without altering its basic characteristics handles, cabinets, scientific instruments.... Reduce lumber grade and may capture moisture, designers often rely on preservative-treated wood can be satisfactorily bonded the... ( F1F ) one face meets FAS requirements and the number and types defects. A primary sawmill joinery, solid wood moldings, and finishes well ( 25 mm ) Board was in. Kind of lumber you end up using for a wide range of applications s timber!

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